A Manual and Practical Guide

Nancy B. Olson, Editor

Copyright 1995 OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.

OCLC encourages the dissemination of this electronic document and expressly grants rights to copy this document provided this copyright statement and all attributions are retained.

Published in the United States

ISBN 1-55653-189-3


Special thanks to Glenn Patton and Jay Weitz of OCLC, and to the many reviewers and contributors to this document. OCLC acknowledges the significant contribution of the Library of Congress.

Funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Library Programs, under the College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program.




Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
MARC Format
Project Recommendations


Why catalog Internet resources?
The "Moving Target"


Scope and Definition
Access Information for Internet Resources


AACR2 9.0B1. Chief Source of Information
AACR2 9.0B2. Prescribed Sources of Information
AACR2 9.1B. Title Proper
AACR2 9.1C. General Material Designation
AACR2 9.1D. Parallel Titles
AACR2 9.1E. Other Title Information
AACR2 9.1F. Statement of Responsibility
AACR2 9.1G. Items without a Collective Title
AACR2 9.3. Area 3. File Characteristics Area
AACR2 9.3B1. Designation
AACR2 9.3B2. Number of Records, Statements, Etc.
AACR2 12.3. Area 3. Numeric and/or Alphabetic, Chronological, or other Designation Area for Serials.
AACR2 9.4. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Area
AACR2 9.4B1 (amended). Published Material
AACR2 9.5 (footnote 3). Area 5. Physical Description Area
AACR2 9.6. Area 6. Series
AACR2 9.7, 1.7, 12.7. Area 7. Notes
AACR2 9.7B1a. Nature and Scope
AACR2 12.7B1. Frequency for Serials
AACR2 9.7B1b. System Requirements
AACR2 9.7B1c. Mode of Access
AACR2 9.7B2. Language/Script
AACR2 9.7B3. Source of the Title Proper
AACR2 9.7B4. Variations in Title
AACR2 9.7B5. Parallel Titles and other Title Information
AACR2 9.7B6. Statements of Responsibility
AACR2 9.7B7. Edition and History of the File
AACR2 12.7B7. Relationships with other Serials
AACR2 9.7B8. File Characteristics
AACR2 12.7B8. Numbering and Chronological Designation for Serials
AACR2 9.7B9. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Information
AACR2 9.7B10. Physical Description, Including Color or Sound
AACR2 9.7B11. Accompanying Material Information
AACR2 9.7B12. Series Information
AACR2 9.7B13. Dissertation Note
AACR2 9.7B14. Intended Audience for the Item
AACR2 1.7B15. Reference to Published Descriptions
AACR2 9.7B16. Other Formats in which the Information Is Available
AACR2 9.7B17. Summary
AACR2 9.7B18. Contents
AACR2 9.7B19. Numbers
AACR2 9.7B20. Copy Being Described, Library's Holdings, and Restrictions on Use
AACR2 9.7B21. "With" Note
AACR2 1.7B22. Combined Notes Relating to the Original
AACR2 12.7B23. Item
AACR2 12.7B23. Item Described for Serials


Main Entry
Added Entries
Title Added Entries
System Details Access and Electronic Location and Access




856 Electronic Location and Access
Subfield Codes
Field Definition and Scope
Guidelines for Applying Content Designators
First Indicator - Access Method
Second Indicator - Undefined
Subfield Codes


Selected Bibliography


The U.S. Department of Education has provided a College Library Technology and Cooperation grant to OCLC in support of the project "Building a Catalog of Internet Resources." This grant partially funds an 18-month project that, according to the announcement, "initiates a nationwide, coordinated effort among libraries and institutions of higher education to create, implement, test, and evaluate a searchable database of USMARC format bibliographic records, complete with electronic location and access information, for Internet-accessible materials." This project builds on an earlier OCLC project, "Assessing Information on the Internet."
As part of the original project, cataloging rules and MARC content designations were examined to identify their suitability for the creation of bibliographic descriptions for items accessible through the Internet. As a result of that examination, Guidelines for Bibliographic Description of Internet Resources were prepared and used by participants in the experiment as they cataloged items selected and distributed by the OCLC Office of Research. Participants provided comments and suggestions about these guidelines as they worked with their assigned cataloging. The resulting bibliographic records were examined and evaluated by OCLC, and comments and suggestions were compiled as the final research report was prepared. Suggested changes to the cataloging rules and to the MARC format were forwarded to the appropriate committees of the American Library Association for their consideration.

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

The "Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules," 2d ed., 1988 revision (AACR2) is used in the preparation of bibliographic records by OCLC participants as well as by most libraries in the United States. Requests for changes in the rules go to the American Library Association, Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS), Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA). CC:DA submits proposals for changes in the rules to the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR (JSC). This international body, after appropriate consultation with all countries involved, issues changes to the rules. The Library of Congress (LC), which also has a representative on the JSC, prepares interpretations of the rules for use by its own catalogers. These LC rule interpretations (LCRIs) are published quarterly and may be used by catalogers everywhere. OCLC users are obligated to follow the most recent edition of AACR and its amendments, as well as the LCRIs in the preparation of bibliographic records.

MARC Format

Bibliographic records must be content-designated for input into a computer environment. The standard format for content designation of information contained in bibliographic records is the MARC (machine-readable cataloging) format. The format used in the United States is called USMARC; OCLC uses a variation identified as OCLC MARC. The USMARC format is developed by the Library of Congress, with advice from MARBI (the American Library Association ALCTS/LITA/RASD Committee on Representation in Machine Readable Form of Bibliographic Information). Proposals for change are submitted to MARBI where they are discussed and recommendations made to the Library of Congress.

Project Recommendations

Following the 1992-93 OCLC project, "Assessing Information on the Internet," project staff submitted draft "Guidelines for Bibliographic Description of Internet Resources" to CC:DA for review and comment. In addition, OCLC and LC submitted to MARBI requests for changes to the MARC format (MARBI Proposal 93-4) intended to accommodate the description and coding of information related to online information resources.
CC:DA created the Task Force on Cataloging Internet Resources to consider the OCLC document. Their report was submitted to CC:DA at the 1993 annual ALA meeting, with final CC:DA comments prepared in December 1993. Two rule revisions were forwarded to the JSC as a result of this review, one for revision of chief source and the other for the mode of access note.
MARBI discussed Proposal 93-4 at its January 1993 meeting and approved it in part. After revision, more of the recommendations were approved at the 1993 annual ALA meeting. The original proposal continues to be refined through this process.
Almost all examples given in this manual are real. They have been gathered from bibliographic records created during the earlier OCLC experiment, and from the OCLC database. When no example could be found from either of these sources, one was taken from AACR2, the USMARC format, or created.
The guidelines developed for the earlier OCLC project were tested by some 100 participants in that project. Possible changes to the rules identified in that project were discussed by a CC:DA task force. Some changes were supported by the task force, while others were not; the task force prepared several rule revision proposals and submitted them to CC:DA. Reactions by users to the guidelines presented in this manual will be compiled and submitted to CC:DA at the conclusion of this project together with proposals for new rules and/or rule revisions, as appropriate. Your input to the continued evolution of this document is invited. Please send your comments to:

Erik Jul
6565 Frantz Road
Dublin OH 43017-3395
(614) 764-4364
(614) 764-0155 Fax


"Cataloging Internet Resources: A Manual and Practical Guide" was developed to aid those participating in the OCLC/U.S. Department of Education-funded project "Building a Catalog of Internet Resources." As such, it is designed for OCLC users and other project participants. Examples and guidelines are coded and tagged as needed for OCLC input. The codes and tags follow OCLC MARC rather than USMARC in the few instances where there is some difference in content or appearance. Because some users of this manual may not be experienced catalogers, or may be approaching the description of electronic resources for the first time, this manual includes considerably more detail about preparation of a bibliographic description than would be usual in cataloging guidelines.
While the manual includes guidelines based on the "Anglo- American Cataloguing Rules," 2d ed., 1988 revision (AACR2), it does not include the complete text of the rules involved and must be used together with "AACR2," its amendments, and the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs). In no instances do these guidelines contradict the rules.
Many OCLC MARC codes and tags are integrated with the rules throughout the manual. Because catalogers must think of codes and tags as they are preparing bibliographic descriptions using AACR2, it seemed logical to integrate both aspects into one document, especially one designed to be used in conjunction with the OCLC Internet Cataloging project. It does not include all possible MARC codes, indicators, or subfields, nor does it address fixed-field coding or any of the 0XX fields. The OCLC document, "Bibliographic Formats and Standards," must be used together with this manual.

Why catalog Internet resources?

Efforts to catalog Internet resources were questioned by some of the library community during CC:DA discussion of the task force report. This "Manual," and these guidelines, are prepared with the knowledge that there is a demand at some institutions for bibliographic records for Internet resources to be prepared and made available through online catalogs.
The basic premises of the OCLC projects concerning access to Internet resources are:
1. There is a great deal of valuable information available through the Internet;
2. These resources need to be organized for accessibility; and
3. Using existing library techniques and procedures and creating records for retrieval through existing online catalogs is the most efficient method of accessing these resources.

The "Moving Target"

One problem with cataloging computer files is that the medium changes/develops so rapidly. By the time one figures out terminology and characteristics of available technology, new developments have made that technology obsolete. As an example, interactive multimedia are now available through the Internet. Cataloging rules developed in "AACR2," chapter 1, give general guidance on cataloging. Those rules can be applied to any type of material. It is always useful to review the general rules when faced with some new type of material to be cataloged.


Scope and Definition

This manual was developed to assist OCLC users and others who are preparing bibliographic descriptions of resources available through the Internet. The guidelines follow the "Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules," 2d ed., 1988 revision (AACR2) and the "Amendments 1993." This manual provides a convenient single source of information by combining a discussion of cataloging rules, appropriate MARC fields, and illustrative examples.
This manual is intended to be used as an adjunct cataloging aid, and it does not supersede any existing, authoritative documentation. Chapter 9 of "AACR2" includes special provisions for cataloging computer files available by "remote access." Remote access is defined in "AACR2" as "The use of computer files via input/output devices connected electronically to a computer." This is contrasted to direct access, "The use of computer files via carriers (e.g., disks, cassettes, cartridges) designed to be inserted into a computer or its auxiliary equipment by the user." The special provisions of "AACR2," chapter 9, for files available by remote access are applicable to Internet resources. They include the use of the area for file description, the absence of physical description, and a note stating the "mode of access" to the file.


The guidelines include some directions for cataloging serial computer files. CONSER participants may use the draft version of the "Conser Cataloging Manual," Module 31, Remote Access Computer File Serials. CONSER participants catalog serials on the serials workform, while OCLC members may choose to use that workform or the workform for computer file serials.
At the time of the earlier project, some aspects of serial cataloging could not be handled on the computer file format, and some aspects of computer files could not be handled on the serials workform. Some notes could only be used on one format or the other. With format integration, phase I, implemented by OCLC in January, 1995, these problems no longer exist. However, fixed-field problems will not be resolved until format integration is complete.
After the full implementation of format integration, both computer file and serial characteristics will be recorded in fixed-fields 008 and 006, respectively.

Access Information for Internet Resources

Some information is to be carried in special MARC fields. Subscription information and local access information are to be entered in field 856, "Electronic Location and Access," a field developed especially for this kind of information. Appendix I contains complete directions for field 856.


AACR2 9.0B1. Chief Source of Information.

The chief source of information for computer files available by remote access is the title screen or similar display from the terminal or a printout. If there is no special display, information is to be taken from the file itself: "readme file," "about" screen, TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) header, documentation file, internal menus, labels, subject line, program statements, etc. Because Internet resources are available by remote access, there is no accompanying printed documentation, though such documentation may be available in an internal file or a separate file, and there are no containers with labels containing information. An added complication is that the file may be unreadable until it is decompressed and/or processed in some manner.
If no information is available as listed above, the cataloger may consider using a title from a "home page" or from a menu that provides access to the file, or from any published description of, or citation to, the file.
A file name may be used, if there is no other title given. If no information is available from any source, the cataloger must supply a title.

AACR2 9.0B2. Prescribed Sources of Information.

Information for each area of the bibliographic record is to be taken from the chief source, as outlined above.

AACR2 9.1. Area 1. Title proper and statement of responsibility area. [MARC 245]

For additional information, consult "AACR2" and the LCRIs.

AACR2 9.1B. Title Proper. [MARC 245 $a (may require use of $n, $p)]

The title of an Internet file is taken from the chief source of information. The source of the title always is given in a note (cf. "AACR2," 9.7B3).

245 04 The arachnet electronic journal on virtual culture
245 00 Journal of statistics education
245 00 I hate computers
245 00 Journal of Buddhist ethics
245 00 Global emergency medicine archives
245 00 At the earth's core
245 02 A girl of the Limberlost
245 00 Recommended classical compact discs. $n List no. 3, $p Early orchestral music.

The title proper is bracketed only if supplied by the cataloger.

245 00 [Bibliography on evolution and genetics]

AACR2 9.1C. General Material Designation. [MARC 245 $h]

The only general material designation (GMD) permitted for material cataloged by AACR 2 chapter 9 is "computer file." The GMD is required, following immediately after the title proper, enclosed within brackets.

245 00 Guidelines to use 8-bit character codes $h [computer file]
245 00 Walden, or, Life in the woods $h [computer file]
AACR2 9.1D. Parallel Titles. [MARC 245 $b]

Parallel titles are transcribed following an "equals" sign.

245 00 Electronic journal of communication $h [computer file] = $b Revue electronique de communication.
245 00 Hua hsia wen chai $h [computer file] = $b China news digest

AACR2 9.1E. Other Title Information. [MARC 245 $b]

Other title information, if present, follows the GMD.

245 00 High performance computing and communications $h [computer file] : $b testimony of D. Allan Bromley, director, Office of Science and Technology Policy before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate, March 5, 1991.
245 00 ALCTS network news $h [computer file] : $b an electronic publication of the Association for Library Collections & Technical Services.
245 00 NASA spacelink $h [computer file] : $b NASA's computer information service for educators.
245 02 A tale of two cities $h [computer file] : $b a story of the French Revolution

AACR2 9.1F. Statement of Responsibility. [MARC 245 $c]

A statement of responsibility is given in the title and statement of responsibility area only if a "formal" statement of responsibility is shown with the title (similar to that on a typical title page of a book).
If there is no statement of responsibility given on the chief source of information, do not attempt to construct one. A statement of responsibility is not required in a bibliographic record. People or corporate bodies named somewhere other than on the chief source of information may be named in a note if added entries are needed for them.
The statement of responsibility information is transcribed exactly as found.
245 00 NASA spacelink $h [computer file] : $b NASA's computer information service for educators / $c managed by the NASA Education Division in cooperation with the Marshall Space Flight Center.
245 00 Early stages in a sensorimotor transformation $h [computer file] / $c Martha Flanders, Stephen I. Helms Tillery, and John F. Soechting.
245 00 Universal declaration of human rights $h [computer file] / $c brought to you by Amnesty International, Potsdam Chapter.
245 00 Archive sites and how to use them $h [computer file] / $c written by Peter Deutsch ; additional material was provided by Alan Emtage ; David Homes prepared the illustrations.
245 00 Guidelines to use 8-bit character codes $h [computer file] / $c A. Pirard.
245 00 IETF Networking Group meeting, 1991 $h [computer file] / $c IETF Networking Group.

AACR2 9.1G. Items without a Collective Title.

If a collection of computer files is to be cataloged as a unit, but lacks a collective title, transcribe the individual titles (title proper through statement of responsibility) one by one as part of Area 1. This rule is not likely to be used with Internet materials.

AACR2 9.2. Area 2. Edition Area. [MARC 250]

The rule in AACR2 for the edition statement for computer files interprets the concept of edition very broadly. If the file contains any word or phrase indicating the same information was available previously in a different form, that word or phrase is considered to be an edition statement. In case of doubt, assume the information in question to be an edition statement.

250 News version.
250 Electronic version.
250 Version 32.
250 Version 2.9.6.
250 Working draft.
250 Release 12/91.
250 ASCII ed.
250 PostScript ed.
250 2nd ed. / $b prepared by A. Winnter.

AACR2 9.3. Area 3. File Characteristics Area. [MARC 256]

There are two parts to the area: the designation, and the number of records, statements, etc.

AACR2 9.3B1. Designation.

This part of the file characteristics area is required for files available by remote access; all bibliographic records for Internet materials must carry this information.
The designation is limited by AACR2 to the following choices:

256 Computer data.
256 Computer program.
256 Computer programs.
256 Computer data and program.
256 Computer data and programs.

AACR2 9.3B2. Number of Records, Statements, Etc.

These guidelines recommend not including this information in the 256 field for the cataloging of most Internet resources, because the number of files and the file size of a document may vary greatly from the form in which it is received to the form in which it is used and stored. Use instead the 856 field to record file size and related details concerning compression, etc.; multiple 856 fields contain details of files available in a variety of formats.
Serial files would not include this information unless the serial were complete and its size could be determined. If a monographic file is being cataloged and the size is known, it may be recorded here.

256 Computer data (1 file : 83565 bytes).

AACR2 12.3. Area 3. Numeric and/or Alphabetic, Chronological, or other Designation Area for Serials. [MARC 362]

This area is used for serials when cataloging when cataloging from the first issue. It is used in addition to the Area 3 for file characteristics and is given following the 256 field.

362 0 Vol. 1, issue 1 (Oct. 1989)-
362 1 Ceased publication in 1990.
362 0 1st ser. (1993)-

The area is omitted if cataloging is done from an issue other than the first. If information about the beginning and/or ending issue is available, it is given in a note following AACR2 12.7B8 {MARC 515].

AACR2 9.4. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Area. [MARC 260]

In the interest of simplification, we suggest all items on the Internet selected for cataloging be considered published. The consequence of this decision means there will be a formal statement of publication that includes place, publisher, and date. If no place or publisher information is readily available in the item, use s.l. or s.n. as appropriate.

AACR2 9.4B1 (amended). Published Material. [MARC 260 $a $b $c]

For published material, the place of publication, name of publisher, and date of publication are to be given.

260 [Chicago : $b American Library Association], $c 1991.
260 [Ann Arbor, MI] : $b Merit Network, $c c1991.
260 Geneva, Switzerland : $b CERN, $c 1992.
260 [S.l. : $b s.n.], $c 1994.
260 [S.l. : $b s.n., $c 1995?]

The date is omitted when cataloging a serial from other than the first issue.

260 [Washington, D.C.] : $b DDN Network Info Center,

AACR2 9.5 (footnote 3). Area 5. Physical Description Area. [MARC 300]

The physical description area is omitted for this material according to directions given in "AACR2," because there is no physical item being cataloged.

AACR2 9.6. Area 6. Series. [MARC 4XX]

For additional information on series, see "AACR2" and the LCRIs.

490 0 Project Gutenberg etext
440 0 Notes from the Bikelab ; $v no. 12

AACR2 9.7, 1.7, 12.7. Area 7. Notes. [MARC 5XX]

Notes make up the balance of the descriptive portion of the bibliographic record. Some notes are required and others are optional. When used, they are input in the order of the rules themselves.
Information from two or more notes may be combined into one note when appropriate, according to rule 1.7A5. Rule 0.27 explains that the wording of notes is not set by rules; notes are to be brief and clear to the user. The wording of notes is to be determined by the cataloger; wording of examples need not be followed.
This "manual" does not include specific information about indicator values. Nevertheless, they are an important part of content designation, because they control aspects such as display constants. Therefore, it is necessary to consult OCLC's "Bibliographic Formats and Standards" and apply indicators appropriately.
This list combines notes from "AACR2," chapter 9 (computer files), chapter 12 (serials), and chapter 1 (general).
With format integration, all note fields may be used for computer files. Prefer to use a specific MARC note field when available. Otherwise, use the 500 filed for general notes. If one wants to use a field not listed here, one should determine the rule number under which such a note would be made in order to determine its position in the bibliographic record, as notes are to be included in the order of their rule numbers.

AACR2 9.7B1a. Nature and Scope. [MARC 500, 516]

This note provides brief information on the nature or scope of the file, unless this is apparent from the rest of the description, or is included as part of a summary.

500 Novel.
500 Electronic newsletter.
500 Fantasy game.
500 Computer music.

MARC field 516 "contains information that characterizes the computer file." A general descriptor is used, with more specific information inclosed in parentheses. Related coded information is recorded in the fixed field, Type of computer file.

516 Text (Law reports and digests)
516 Computer programs
516 Numeric (Summary statistics)

AACR2 12.7B1. Frequency for Serials. [MARC 310]

The frequency of a serial is given here.

310 Four issues during the academic year.
310 Weekly.
310 Irregular.
310 File continuously updated.
310 Biweekly (except once in Aug. and Dec.)

AACR2 9.7B1b. System Requirements. [MARC 538]

This note is used in a formal, structured, manner to indicate what computer is required, how much memory, any additional programs needed, and any special peripherals needed.
For files available by remote access, this note is used to specify any specific program or type of program needed for use with the file and/or any special hardware requirements. The note begins with the words "System requirements:"

538 System requirements: PostScript compatible printer.

AACR2 9.7B1c. Mode of Access. [MARC 538]

Because a separate local access field (MARC field 856) provides detailed information for access, this note may be brief. It may begin with the words "Mode of access:" though other wording may be used.v 538 Mode of access: Internet.
538 Access through computer network.
538 Electronic access through Internet.
538 Remote access through Internet.
538 Available electronically via Internet.

The CC:DA task force suggests the host name and address be supplied in this note. It has prepared a rule revision proposal to add the following example to "AACR2":

Mode of access: Internet. Host:

AACR2 9.7B2. Language/Script. [MARC 546]

The language and/or script of the content of the file is named in this note unless it is apparent from the rest of the description.

546 Text in French and English.
546 Textes en francais et en anglais.

AACR2 9.7B3. Source of the Title Proper. [MARC 500]

500 Title from first line of file.
500 Title from title display.
500 Title supplied by cataloger.
500 Title from TEI header.

For a serial, this information is combined with the "Description based on:" note when the latter note is given.

500 Description based on: Issue 43; title from file header.

AACR2 9.7B4. Variations in Title. [MARC 500]

The filename could go here if desired and if not given elsewhere.

500 Filename: TeXhaxD.
500 Running title: Information resource schema.

AACR2 9.7B5. Parallel Titles and other Title Information. [MARC 500]

This note is used for other title information found on the item that is considered to be important and not given elsewhere in the bibliographic record.

500 Request for comments.
500 "H.R. 656."

AACR2 9.7B6. Statements of Responsibility. [MARC 500, 536, 550]

This note is used to name any person or corporate body not named in the statement of responsibility in the title and statement of responsibility area, but important enough to be named in the bibliographic record.
When deciding what notes to make here, consider the relative importance of the information, and the needs of users for added entries for access to names of persons and/or corporate bodies mentioned in the notes. An added entry may only be made if the information upon which it is based is provided somewhere in the bibliographic record (see the 7XX fields in OCLC's "Bibliographic Formats and Standards").

500 Authors: Chris Weider, Mark Knopper.
500 Material copyrighted by Charles L. Hendrick.
500 Copyright by the Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, Inc.
500 "Made available by the International Telecommunications Union."

550 Issued by ALA Reference and Adult Services Division, Machine-Assisted Reference Section, Direct Patron Access to Computer-Based Reference Systems Committee.

Funding information may be recorded in the 536 field.

536 Sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration.
536 Sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency through the Office of Naval Research. $b N00014-68-A-0245-0007 $c ARPA Order No. 2616.

AACR2 9.7B7. Edition and History of the File. [MARC 500, 522, 567]

Information about the edition and history of the file is given here if important to users.

500 "Originally a Wiretap etext edition."
500 "Adopted July 2, 1991, by the ALA Council."
500 "This edition ... created from a comparison of various editions determined by age to be in the public domain in the United States."
500 "From the English edition of 1888."

If it is considered important to include geographic coverage, use filed 522.

522 County-level data from four Northwestern states (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington).

Methodology used in preparation of the file may be recorded here in field 567. This may include notes about any significant methodological characteristics of the item (e.g., algorithm, universe description, sampling procedures, classification, or validation characteristics).

567 Study utilized a stratified, multistate sampling procedure in three stages.

AACR2 12.7B7. Relationships with other Serials. [MARC 580, 765, 767, 770, 772, 775, 777, 780, 785, 797]

This note is used to state relationships with other serial computer files. In most cases the note can be generated from MARC fields 765, 767, 770, 772, 775, 777, 780, 785, and 787. Field 580 is used if a free-text note is needed.

780 00 NBER time series database.

[This note will display as "Continues: NBER time series database."]

AACR2 9.7B8. File Characteristics. [MARC 516]

This note is used for additional information about the file if the information is not available elsewhere in the bibliographic record.

516 Minimal TEI tagging.
516 Converted to TEI.2-conformant (P2) SGML.
516 Quotation marks retained as data. All unambiguous end-of-line hyphens have been removed, and the trailing part of the word has been joined to the preceding line.
516 File is in Postscript format.

The number of cases or variables making up the files also may be recorded in field 565. A number of subfields are provided to be used as needed.

565 465 cases.

AACR2 12.7B8. Numbering and Chronological Designation for Serials. [MARC 515]

This note is used for anything about the numbering that is not specified in Area 3 for serials. It may be used to give complex, irregular, or peculiar designations.

515 Numbering irregular.
515 Report year ends June 30.
515 Aug. 1992 also called: Summer edition.
515 Additional issues on special topics are occasionally transmitted.

AACR2 9.7B9. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Information. [MARC 500]

This note is used for any important information not already given about publication or distribution of the file.

500 Available commercially from: Oxford Text Archive, A-1300-A.

AACR2 9.7B10. Physical Description, Including Color or Sound. [MARC 500]

Information about color or sound is given in this note if it is not included in a summary.

500 Graphics display in color.
500 Plays music as score advances on the screen.

AACR2 9.7B11. Accompanying Material Information. [MARC 556]

If documentation is available as a separate file, that information would go in this note.

556 Printed documentation available directly from the originator of the file.
556 Documentation may be printed out from separate file.
556 Documentation in "readme" file.

AACR2 9.7B12. Series Information. [MARC 500]

This note is used to record series information not included in the series statement (4XX).

500 Originally issued in series: American national election study series.

AACR2 9.7B13. Dissertation Note. [MARC 502]

If the computer file is a dissertation, details about the degree are given in this note.

502 Thesis (M.A.)--Carnegie Mellon University, 1991.

AACR2 9.7B14. Intended Audience for the Item. [MARC 521]

Intended audience is given in a note if the information is stated in the item being cataloged.

521 Medical personnel and health researchers.

[This note will display as "Audience: Medical personnel and health researchers."]

AACR2 1.7B15. Reference to Published Descriptions. [MARC 510, 524, 581]

This note specifies where the item has been cited.

510 0 Applied science and technology index.

[This note will display as "Applied science and technology index."]

The preferred citation of the materials being cataloged may be included in field 524.

524 Jennings M. Kent and Richard G. Niemi. Youth-parent socialization panel study, 1965-1973. -- Ann Arbor, Mich. : Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 1981.

Notes about the citation of, or information about, a publication based on the use, study, or analysis of the materials is included in field 581.

581 8 The adjusted 1970 numbers are used as a basis for the annual county population estimates published in Current population reports series P-26 and P-25.

AACR2 9.7B16. Other Formats in which the Information Is Available. [MARC 530, 535]

Information is given in field 530 about other formats in which the information is available.

530 May also be issued as ASCII text on floppy disk, or in print form.
530 Available in printed form from ALA.
530 Also available in printed version containing additional information.
530 Also available in AMSTEX format and print format.

The location of originals and/or of duplicates may be recorded in field 535.

535 2 $3 Company histories $a U.S. Army Military History Institute; $b Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013; $d 717-245-3601, 3434 $g pau

AACR2 9.7B17. Summary. [MARC 520]

This note provides a brief, objective summary of the purpose and content of the item, if needed.

520 Provides abstracts of articles and discussions from the electronic journal Computers and academic freedom news.
520 Table of ANSI escape code sequences and their functions.
520 In this sequel to "Anne of Green Gables," a teenage Anne Shirley becomes a schoolteacher in a small village on Prince Edward Island.

[These notes will display as "Summary:...."]

520 8 Discusses the file format structure of the Macintosh and problems on conversions between BinHex files and binary files on a UNIX platform.

AACR2 9.7B18. Contents. [MARC 505, 500, and 504]

These notes provides a formal or informal list of contents of a file.

505 0 Description of working group -- Goals and milestones.
505 0 The Bill of Rights and beyond / Dennis J. Reynolds -- Techno-fallacies of the information age / Gary T. Marx -- Freedom and privacy in electronic libraries / Steve Cisler ....

[These notes will display as "Contents:...."]

505 00 $t The Bill of Rights and beyond / $r Dennis J. Reynolds -- $t Techno-fallacies of the information age / $r Gary T. Marx -- $t Freedom and privacy in electronic libraries / $r Steve Cisler ....

500 Contains a list of all the documents available via anonymous FTP from the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Information System (STIS). Also includes instructions for searching the index and downloading the files.
500 Includes LaTeX macro software for article formatting.
500 Includes summaries in English of articles from Chilean newspapers concerning human rights and political and environmental issues.

A note about bibliographic references is a type of contents note. [MARC 504]

504 Includes bibliographic references.

AACR2 9.7B19. Numbers. [MARC 500]

Numbers not considered report numbers appearing on the item that may be important but don't seem to belong anywhere else may be recorded in this note. Use fieled 088 for report numbers.

500 "RFC 1251."

AACR2 9.7B20. Copy Being Described, Library's Holdings, and Restrictions on Use. [MARC 506, 583, 590]

This note states any general or universal limitations or restrictions on the use of the item being cataloged.

506 "Not to be for use or included in any storage or retrieval system in any country other than the United States."
506 Missing chapter 72.
506 Restrictions on access: With an institutional or site subscription, complete newsletters may be duplicated and distributed to individuals affiliated with the institution.

Notes about processing and reference actions may be recorded in filed 583.

583 Destroy $c September 1.

Local notes are recorded in field 590.

590 Available at Mankato State University through campus gopher.

AACR2 9.7B21. "With" Note. [MARC 501]

Used to connect bibliographic records for two or more computer files with no collective title that are cataloged individually. This is not likely to be needed for cataloging Internet resources, as they are individually cataloged.

501 With: AnsiSpecs.

AACR2 1.7B22. Combined Notes Relating to the Original. [MARC 534]

Use this note to describe the original item represented by the computer file being cataloged.

534 $p Electronic text of: $a Sophocles. $t The Oedipus trilogy / by Sophocles ; English translation by F. Storr. $c Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1912. $f (Loeb Library).

AACR2 12.7B23. Item Described for Serials. [MARC 500]

This note is used only when the description is based on other than the first issue.

500 Description based on: Vol. 91, issue 51 (Nov. 14, 1991).
500 Description based on surrogate of: #53, c1992; title from caption of printout.


Main Entry [MARC 1XX, or, when no 1XX, 245]

Main entry is chosen following rules in "AACR2," chapter 21. There are no special rules for main entry of computer files.

100 2 Stratton-Porter, Gene, $d 1863-1924.
100 1 Montgomery, L. M. $q (Lucy Maud), $d 1874- 1942.
100 1 Angelou, Maya.
100 0 Aristophanes.

110 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
110 2 Library of Congress.
110 1 Virginia.
110 1 United States. $b Supreme Court.

130 0 Edward III (Drama)
130 0 Arabian nights. $l English. $k Selections.

245 00 Journal of Buddhist ethics $h [computer file]
245 04 The federal bulletin board $h [computer file]

Serial computer files may need uniform title main entries to distinguish between other serials with the same title, or between other formats or editions of the serial.

130 0 Journal of extension (PostScript ed.)
130 0 Journal of extension (ASCII ed.)

Added Entries [MARC 7XX]

Added entries are made following "AACR2," rules 21.29-21.30. Added entries should be made for names of persons, corporate bodies, and titles not chosen as main entry, if those entries might be used by patrons when looking for the item.
Any name or title for which an added entry is made must appear somewhere in the bibliographic record.

700 00 Sophocles. $t Oedipus Rex. $l English.
700 00 Sophocles. $t Oedipus at Colonus. $l English.
700 00 Sophocles. $t Antigone. $l English.
700 1 Tinker, Chauncey Brewster, $d 1876-1963.
710 2 ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.
710 2 Cornell Law School. $b Legal Information Institute.
710 2 Federal Information Exchange, Inc.
730 12 Worm runner's digest.

Title Added Entries [MARC 245, 246, 730, 740]

Title added entries are indicated variously: field 245, first indicator 1, for title added entries; field 246 for varying form of title; or field 740 for uncontrolled analytical titles and uncontrolled related titles.

246 10 CFS news
246 10 Chronic fatigue syndrome news

730 12 Worm runner's digest.
740 01 Telecommunications rely services for hearing- impaired individuals.

System Details Access and Electronic Location and Access [MARC 753, 856]

Field 753 was developed to provide access to the type of computer needed for the computer file being cataloged, as well as for access for additional technical details, such as the programming language used, or the operating system needed. However, for Internet resources, prefer field 856 for technical information. Field 856 has been developed to contain all the information necessary for subscribing to, transferring, or otherwise accessing the electronic resource. The complete description of this field is included in Appendix I of this document.


There are many systems for subject headings and classification. A library may choose what type of subject access it desires. The "Guidelines on Subject Access to Microcomputer Software" (American Library Association, 1986) recommend that a library treat computer files just like any other form of material in terms of the number and kinds of subject headings assigned, and the type of classification used.


The following records, taken from the OCLC Online Union Catalog, represent a variety of Internet resources.

Example 1

Print item with WorldWide Web access to table of contents

OCLC: 31901448 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950105 Replaced: 19950225 Used: 19950225
Type: a Bib lvl: m Source: Lang: eng
Repr: Enc lvl: 8 Conf pub: 0 Ctry: nmu
Indx: 1 Mod rec: Govt pub: s Cont: b
Desc: a Int lvl: Festschr: 0 Illus:
F/B: 0 Dat tp: s Dates: 1995,
1 010 95-4331
2 040 DLC $c DLC
3 020 082631595X
4 043 n-us-nm $a n-usu--
5 050 00 SB407 $b .M875 1995
6 082 00 635.9/09789 $2 20
7 090 $b
8 049 OCLC
9 100 1 Morrow, Baker H., $d 1946-
10 245 10 Best plants for New Mexico gardens and landscapes : $b keyed to cities and regions / $c Baker H. Morrow.
11 260 Albuquerque : $b University of New Mexico Press, $c 1995.
12 263 9506
13 300 p. cm.
14 504 Includes bibliographical references and index.
15 650 0 Plants, Ornamental $z New Mexico.
16 650 0 Landscape gardening $z New Mexico.
17 650 0 Plants, Ornamental $z Southwest, New.
18 650 0 Landscape gardening $z Southwest, New.
19 856 7 $3 Table of contents $u 4331.html $2 http

Example 2

Serial with telnet access

OCLC: 32075150 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950302 Replaced: 19950302 Used: 19950302
Type: a Bib lvl: s Source: d Lang: eng
Repr: Enc lvl: 7 Govt pub: f Ctry: dcu
Phys med: Mod rec: Conf pub: 0 Cont: ^^^^
S/L ent: 0 Ser tp: Frequn: w Alphabt:
Desc: a Regulr: r ISDS:
Pub st: c Dates: 1990-9999
1 040 GPO $c GPO
2 043 n-us---
3 074 0554-A (online)
4 086 0 GP 3.35:DOS_DISP/
5 090 $b
6 049 OCLC
7 245 00 Dept. of State dispatch magazine $h [computer file].
8 246 1 $i LIB name: $a DOS_DISP
9 260 [Washington, D.C. : $b U.S. G.P.O., $c 1993-
10 310 Weekly
11 362 0 Vol. 1, no. 1 (Sept. 3, 1990)-
12 538 System requirements: PC; telecommunications software; modem.
13 500 Mode of access: via INTERNET, telnet to
3001. Also, dialup by modem direct to telephone number (202) 512-1387.
14 500 Title from LIB (library) short description.
15 538 Individual files in ASCII format.
16 520 Contains a diverse compilation of major speeches, congressional testimony, policy statements, fact sheets, and other foreign policy information from the State Dept.
17 580 Online version of printed publication: US Department of State dispatch (Supt. of Docs. class no. S 1.3/5:).
18 610 10 United States. $b Dept. of State $x Periodicals $x Databases.
19 651 0 United States $x Foreign relations $y 1989- $x Periodicals $x Databases.
20 651 0 United States $x Foreign relations administration $x Periodicals $x Databases.
21 710 1 United States. $b Dept. of State.
22 710 1 United States. $b Government Printing Office.
23 787 1 $t US Department of State dispatch $x 1051-7693 $w (DLC) 90660311 $w (OCoLC)22105966
24 856 2 $p 3001 $m $n Office of Electronic Information Dissemination Services, Mail Stop SDE, U.S. G.P.O., Washington, D.C. 20401

Example 3

Online information resource with telnet access

OCLC: 32078041 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950302 Replaced: 19950315 Used: 19950302
Type: m Bib lvl: m Source: d Lang: eng
File: d Enc lvl: I Govt pub: Ctry: ilu
Audience: Mod rec: Frequn: n Regulr:
Desc: a Dat tp: m Dates: 1993,9999
1 040 LMU $c LMU
2 043 n-us---
3 090 Z673.A55 $b A44 (INTERNET)
4 090 $b
5 049 OCLC
6 110 2 American Association of Law Libraries.
7 245 10 AALLNET $h [computer file].
8 246 13 American Association of Law Libraries Information System
9 247 11 LAWNET $f 1993?-1994
10 256 Computer data.
11 260 [Chicago, Ill. : $b The Association [producer] ; $a Topeka, Kan.
: $b Washburn University of Topeka, School of Law [distributor], $c 1993?]-
12 538 System requirements: PC; Internet access.
13 500 Mode of access: via Internet telnet to; login as: aallnet.
14 500 Title from title screen.
15 547 Title history: LAWNET (1993?-1994).
16 520 Official menu contains documents of AALL internal operations, directories, and committees' work; unofficial menu contains information related to legal education, library school programs, legal research, and weather, etc., and provides accesses to law library catalogs.
17 610 20 American Association of Law Libraries $x Information services.
18 650 0 Law libraries $z United States $x Information services.
19 650 0 Library information networks $z United States.
20 710 2 Washburn University of Topeka. $b School of Law.
21 856 2 $b $l aallnet $m Mark Folmsbee, $n Washburn University of Topeka, Topeka, KS $t vt100 $t vt102 $u telnet://

Example 4

Online information resource with Gopher access

OCLC: 32102409 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950307 Replaced: 19950313 Used: 19950307
Type: m Bib lvl: m Source: d Lang: eng
File: d Enc lvl: I Govt pub: Ctry: dcu
Audience: Mod rec: Frequn: n Regulr:
Desc: a Dat tp: m Dates: 1993,9999
1 040 LMU $c LMU
2 043 n-us---
3 090 $b
4 049 OCLC
5 110 2 Legi-Slate (Firm)
6 245 10 Legi-Slate gopher service $h [computer file].
7 246 30 Legi Slate gopher service
8 246 13 Legi-Slate gopher server
9 256 Computer data.
10 260 [Washington, D.C.] : $b Legi-Slate, Inc., $c c1993-
11 265 E-mail ; Legi-Slate, Inc., 777 North Capitol Street, Washington, D.C. 20002.
12 538 System requirements: PC; Internet access.
13 500 Mode of access: via Internet gopher to:
14 500 Title from main menu.
15 516 Document (Legislation and regulations)
16 520 Provides daily updated information about all bills and resolutions introduced in Congress since 1993, and provides full text of all documents published in the Federal Register since January 3, 1994.
17 500 Account required to access full information.
18 610 20 Legi-Slate (Firm) $x Information services.
19 650 0 Legislation $z United States $x Information services.
20 650 0 Bills, Legislative $z United States $x Information services.
21 650 0 Resolutions, Legislative $z United States $x Information services.
22 650 0 Delegated legislation $z United States $x Information services.
23 856 7 $m $n Legi-Slate, Inc., Washington, D.C. $p 70 $u gopher:// $2 gopher
24 856 7 $3 Legislation (bills & resolutions) $a $d /Legislation $m $n Legi-Slate, Inc., Washington, D.C. $p 70 $u gopher:// $2 gopher
25 856 7 $3 Federal register documents $a $d /Regulations $m $n Legi-Slate, Inc., Washington, D.C. $p 70 $u gopher:// $2 gopher

Example 5

Online information resource with WorldWide Web access

OCLC: 32103399 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950307 Replaced: 19950315 Used: 19950307
Type: m Bib lvl: m Source: d Lang: mul
File: d Enc lvl: I Govt pub: Ctry: dcu
Audience: Mod rec: Frequn: n Regulr:
Desc: a Dat tp: m Dates: 1995,9999
1 040 UOK $c UOK
3 090 $b
4 049 OCLC
5 245 00 Worldnews online $h [computer file].
6 246 3 World news online
7 256 Computer data.
8 260 Washington, DC : $b Worldnews Online, $c [1995-
9 538 Mode of access: Internet. Address:
10 538 System requirements: PC with modem.
11 500 Title from title frame.
12 520 "WorldNews OnLine is a service that brings newspapers and news services from around the world to a global community of multi-lingual people who need news from far away places ... our on-line publications have full text of each day's edition on the same day it appears in its local market. The papers may be accessed via any World Wide Web client that supports user authentication."
13 650 0 Newspapers $x Databases.
14 856 7 $u $2 http

Example 6

Subscription-based information resource with dial access

OCLC: 32126993 Rec stat: c
Entered: 19950310 Replaced: 19950315 Used: 19950310
Type: m Bib lvl: s Source: d Lang: eng
File: m Enc lvl: I Govt pub: Ctry: wau
Audience: Mod rec: Frequn: d Regulr: r
Desc: a Pub st: c Dates: 1995-9999
1 040 UOK $c UOK
2 037 $c Available by subscription only
3 043 n-us-wa
4 050 14 NEWSPAPER
6 090 $b
7 049 OCLC
8 245 04 The Seattle times extra $h [computer file].
9 246 10 Times extra
10 246 10 Extra
11 256 Computer data.
12 260 [Seattle, Wash.] : $b Seattle Times Information Services, Inc.,
$c c1995-
13 310 Daily
14 538 Mode of access: telephone/modem 206 624-7000 or 206 927-7100.
15 538 System requirements: PC with modem.
16 500 Description based on: 3/9/95; title from title screen.
17 510 2 Infobank
18 530 Also available in print form, and on microfilm from University Microfilms International.
19 520 Presents news and information from The Seattle Times newspaper in both text and graphical formats, plus extra community information.
20 651 0 Seattle (Wash.) $x Newspapers.
21 710 2 Seattle Times Information Services.
22 730 0 Seattle times (Seattle, Wash. : 1966)
23 752 United States $b Washington $c King $d Seattle.
24 776 1 $t Seattle times (Seattle, Wash. : 1966) $x 0745-9696 $w (DLC)sn 83-9191 $w (OCoLC)9198928
25 776 1 $c Microfilm
26 856 7 $2 telephone $b 1-206-6247000 $z Requires logon and password
27 856 7 $2 telephone $b 1-206-9277100 $z Requires logon and password


856 Electronic Location and Access (R)


First Access method
0 Email
2 Remote login (Telnet)
7 Method specified in subfield 2

Second Undefined

Subfield Codes

a Host name (R)
b IP address (NR)
c Compression information (R)
d Path (R)
f Electronic name (R)
g Electronic name--End of range (R)
h Processor of request (NR)
i Instruction (R)
k Password (NR)
l Logon/login (NR)
m Contact for access assistance (R)
n Name of location of host in subfield $a (NR)
o Operating system (NR)
p Port (NR)
q File transfer mode (NR)
s File size (R)
t Terminal emulation (R)
u Uniform Resource Locator (R)
w Record control number (R)
x Nonpublic note (R)
z Public note (R)
2 Access method (NR)
3 Materials specified (NR)

Field Definition and Scope

This field contains the information required to locate an electronic item. The information identifies the electronic location containing the item or from which it is available. It also contains information to retrieve the item by the access method identified in the first indicator position. The information contained in this field is sufficient to allow for the electronic transfer of a file, subscription to an electronic journal, or logon to a library catalog. In some cases, only unique data elements are recorded which allow the user to access a locator table on a remote host containing the remaining information needed to access the item.

Field 856 is repeated when the location data elements vary (subfields $a, $b, $d) and when more than one access method may be used. It is also repeated whenever the electronic filename varies (subfield $f), except for the situation when a single intellectual item is divided into different parts for online storage or retrieval. (This field is identical to field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) defined in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data.)

Guidelines for Applying Content Designators


First Indicator - Access Method

The first indicator position contains a value that defines how the rest of the data in the field will be used. If the resource is available by more than one method, the field is repeated with data appropriate to each method. The methods defined are the main TCP/IP protocols.

The value in the first indicator position determines which subfields are appropriate for use. For example, when first indicator value 1 (FTP) is used, subfields $d (Path), $f (Electronic name), $c (Compression information), and $s (File size) are appropriate, whereas they would not be with first indicator value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)).

0 - Email
Value 0 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through email. This access includes subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum through software intended to be used by an email system.

1 - FTP
Value 1 indicates that the access to the electronic resource is through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to transfer the resource electronically.

2 - Remote login (Telnet)
Value 2 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through remote login (Telnet). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource electronically.

7 - Method specified in subfield $2
Value 7 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through a method other than the defined values and for which an identifying code is given in subfield $2 (Source of access).

Second Indicator - Undefined

The second indicator position is undefined and contains a blank ($).

Subfield Codes

Note: In the following examples, the first subfield $a is implicit.

$a - Host name

Subfield $a contains the fully qualified domain (host name) of the electronic location. It contains a network address which is repeated if there is more than one address for the same host. The convention for a BITNET address is to add .bitnet.

856 1 $a harvarda.bitnet

$b - [IP address]

Subfield $b contains the Internet Protocol (IP) numeric address associated with a host. This data change[s] frequently and is generated by the system, rather than statically stored.

856 2 $b

$c - Compression information

Subfield $c contains information about the compression of a file. If a specific program is required to decompress the file, it is noted here. The filename in subfield $f may indicate the type of compression by its extension (portion after "." or first space). The subfield may be repeated if two compression programs are used, noting the latest compression first.

856 1 $c Must be decompressed with PKUNZIP $f

$d - Path

Subfield $d contains the path with directory names where the file is stored. The filename itself is recorded in subfield $f. This may be a surrogate path leading the user to the host where complete and current access information is stored in a locator table.

856 1 $d /aii/admin/ $f mac-qubic.22.hqx

$f - Electronic name

Subfield $f contains the electronic name as it exists in the directory indicated in subfield $d, on the host machine in subfield $a. It may be repeated if a single logical file has been divided into parts and stored under different names, but that together constitute a single intellectual item. In all other cases, a file that may be retrieved under different filenames contains two 856 fields in the record, each with a different subfield $f. A filename may include wildcard characters (*) if applicable (with a subfield $z note explaining how fields are named). A filename may be case sensitive for some systems.

856 1 $d mirrors/info-mac/util $f color-system-icons.hqx
856 0 kentvm.bitnet $f acadlist file1 $f acadlist file2 $f acadlist file3

This subfield also contains the name of the electronic publication or conference.

856 0 uicvm.bitnet $f AN2

$g - Electronic name--End of range

Subfield $g contains the name of the last physical file in a sequence when the resource is contained in more than one physical file. This subfield is generally used when the repetition of subfield $f is not possible.

856 1 $d LCPP04A $f 4A49751 $g 4A49755

$h - Processor of request

Subfield $h contains the username, or processor of the request; generally the data which precedes the @ in the host address.

856 0 uicvm.bitnet $f AN2 $h Listserv

$i - Instruction

Subfield $i contains an instruction or command needed for the remote host to process a request.

856 0 uccvma.bitnet $f IR-L $h Listserv $i subscribe

$k - Password

Subfield $k contains the password required to access the resource. An FTP site may require the user to enter an Internet address or may require a specific password, or a library catalog may require a password. If a password is required but anything may be used, this subfield need not be used. This subfield is used for general use passwords, not for any requiring security. Textual instructions about passwords are contained in subfield $z (Public note).

856 1 $k guest

$l - Logon/login

Subfield $l contains characters needed to logon to a library catalog or FTP site. Often with anonymous file transfer the logon is "anonymous." An account number required for login may also be indicated. This subfield should be used for general use logins, not for any requiring security.

856 1 unmvm.bitnet $l anonymous

$m - Contact for access assistance

Subfield $m contains the contact for access assistance to the resource at the host specified in subfield $a.

856 2 $m Roy Tennant

$n - Name of location of host in subfield $a

Subfield $n contains the full name of the location of the host in subfield $a, including its geographical location.

856 2 $n Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

$o - Operating system

For informational purposes, operating system for the host name specified in subfield $a is indicated here. Conventions for path and filenames may be dependent on the operating system. For the operating system of the resource itself (i.e., the title recorded in field 245), rather than the operating system of the host making it available, field 753 (Technical Details Access to Computer Files), subfield $c (Operating system) in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data is used in the related bibliographic record.

856 1 $d /pub/soviet.archive $f k1famine.bkg $n Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. $o UNIX

$p - Port

Subfield $p contains the portion of the address that identifies a process or service in the host.

856 2 $n University of Michigan Weather Underground $p 3000

$q - File transfer mode

Subfield $q contains the file transfer mode, which determines how the file is transferred through the network. A normal ASCII file contains certain characters which are translated between systems to make the text files more readable. A file with non-ASCII characters must be transferred using another file transfer mode.

856 1 $d pub/comp.sources.Unix/volume 10 $f comobj.lisp.10.Z $q binary

$s - File size

Subfield $s contains the size of the file as stored under the filename indicated in subfield $f. It is generally expressed in terms of bytes. It may be repeated in cases where the filename is repeated and is recorded directly following the subfield $f to which it applies. This information would not be given for an electronic journal, since the field relates to the entire title, not to particular issues.

856 1 $d mirrors/info-mac/util $f color-system-icons.hqx $s 16874 bytes
856 0 kentvm.bitnet $f acadlist file1 $s 34,989 bytes $f acadlist file2 $s 32,876 bytes $f acadlist file3 $s 23987 bytes

$t - Terminal emulation

Subfield $t contains the terminal emulation supported when necessary to specify for remote login (first indicator contains value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)).

856 2 $n University of Maine $t 3270

$u - Uniform Resource Locator

Subfield $u contains the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which provides standard syntax for locating an object using existing Internet protocols. Field 856 is structured to create a URL from separate subfields. Subfield $u may be used instead of those separate subfields or in addition to them. It might be desirable to include subfield $u and the other subfields if a user display is desired as well as a URL. The field is repeated if more than one URL needs to be recorded.

856 1 $u

$w - Record control number

Subfield $w contains the system control number of the related record preceded by the USMARC code, enclosed in parentheses, for the agency to which the control number applies. The data in the subfield links field 856 to the USMARC record having the same data in a control number field. (The source of the code is Symbols of American Libraries that is maintained by the Library of Congress.)

$x - Nonpublic note

Subfield $x contains a note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is not adequate for public display or contains processing information about the file at the location specified.

856 1 $c decompress with PKUNZIP.exe $d /mirrors2/win3/games $f atmoids. zip $x cannot verify because of transfer difficulty

$z - Public note

Subfield $z contains a note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is adequate for public display.

$2 - Access method

Subfield $2 contains the access method when the first indicator position contains value 7 (Method specified in subfield $2).

This subfield may include access methods other than the three main TCP/IP protocols specified in the first indicator. This subfield is controlled by an authoritative list maintained at the Library of Congress.

$3 - Materials specified

Subfield $3 contains information that specifies the part of the bibliographic item to which the field applies.

856 0 $3 Finding aid to the Edgar F. Kaiser papers $a $b 128.224.55 $k guest $l anonymous $m Reference Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, tel. 510-642-6481 $n The Library, University of California, Berkeley $o UNIX $p 70 $q binary $s 2,394,394,444 $x The finding aid to the Kaiser papers is currently under revision. $z For further information about shipbuilding files, contact The Bancroft Library Reference


Selected Bibliography

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 1988 Revision. Prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR. Edited by Michael Gorman and Paul. W. Winkler. Chicago: American Library Association, 1988. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 1988 Revision, Amendments 1993. Prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR. Text prepared for publication by Edward Swanson. Chicago: American Library Association, 1993.
Assessing Information on the Internet: Toward Providing Library Services for Computer-Mediated Communication, by Martin Dillon, Erik Jul, Mark Burge, Carol Hickey. Dublin, Oh.: OCLC Office of Research, 1993.
Bibliographic Formats and Standards. Dublin, Oh.: OCLC, 1993.
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