Current cataloguing practice in Russia is based on the system of the national standards and cataloguing rules. All of them had been created and published in 1980s, implementing international cataloguing principals ( ICCP/ Statement of Principals) and ISBD structure. Official code, currently used in Russia, is Rules for Bibliographic Description, 1986, henceforth RCR. It is a multy-volume edition. It follows the propositions of national standards on the structure and language (abbreviations) of bibliographic description, which in their turn are based on ISBDs.

Goals and Objectives of the Harmonization Project

While most cataloguing rules meet the ISBDs requirements, there are still some differences inhibiting information exchange aimed at using in Russian cataloguing practices the records supplied from databases elsewhere. Solution of the problem necessitates harmonization of differing regulations for bibliographic records. With this end in view, in May 1996 Russian Library Association (RBA) and OCLC initiated the joint project "Harmonization of Anglo-American and Russian Cataloguing Rules".

The first step of the Harmonization project was devoted to the comparative study ?f the two cataloguing codes, AACR2 and RCR, with the purpose of revealing differences between them and producing suggestions for the elimination of these differences where possible.

The second step will be an experimental exchange of MARC-records from OCLC data bases and RUSMARC-records from NRL catalogue.

Participants of the Harmonization Project

A committee was established by OCLC, NRL, and RBA. It includes leading cataloguing experts from NRL, OCLC and LC. Several consultants from other libraries and institutions in St.Petersburg and Moscow were invited to participate in the project.


The project is funded by Ministry of Culture (Russia) and OCLC.

Methodology and Stages

The following parts of AACR2 had been selected for the comparative study:

Part 1. Description:

1. General Rules for Description.

2. Books. Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets.

12. Headings. Uniform Titles and References





Though a major part of the work has been done by Russian specialists, American cataloguers were involved in a final discussion and creation of the comparative tables. Galina Ogurtsova, a leading member of the steering committee from NRL, travelled to the Library of Congress (May 19-26, 1997). All points of concerns about AACR2-RCR harmonization were disscussed with Barbara Tillett, Chief of Cataloguing Policy and Support Office(LC), Mr. Robert Ewald, Senior Cataloguing Policy Specialist (LC), and Mrs. Natalia Montviloff, Senior Cataloguer, Slavic History and Literature Department(LC).


The results of the study showed that, being based on international recommendations and standards, both cataloguing codes differ in many minor and major aspects. The comparitive table contains 120 of these differences.

General Rules

Abbreviations. The list of abbreviations in AACR2 is rather limited: 10 pages together with rules of use. The latter are consistent with 0.7 ISBD(G). Acording to AACR 2, abbreviations are not usable in Title and statement of responsibility area, Statement of responsibility relating to the edition, Series area (excluding numbering within series), and in cited notes. Under RCR abbreviations are extensively used according to national standards for Russian and Foreign abbreviations (of 16 and 239 pages respectively), even with some date in the Title proper. Hampering interpretation of bibliographic records, particularly in languages other than Russian, and contradicting international standards, numerous abbreviations have been long causing justified discontent both in among the librarians and catalogue users.

Capital letters. RCR prescribe to capitalize every element. AACR2 - only the first element of areas.



Bits of paradise: twenty-one uncollected stories /by F.Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald; selected by Scottie Fitzgerald Smith and Matthew J.Bruccoli; with a foreword by Scottie Fitzgerald Smith


Bits of paradise: Twenty-one uncoll. stories /By F.Scott a. Zelda Fitzgerald; Sel. by Scottie Fitzgerald Smith a. Matthew J.Bruccoli; With a forew. by Scottie Fitzgerald Smith

Inaccuracies and misprintings. Also treated differently. According to AACR 2 inaccuracies or misspelled words are transcribed as they appear in the item (according to 0.10 ISBD(G)), followed by "sic" or "i.e." and the correct version in square brackets. RCR give preference to the correct form, the error indicated only (if at all) in the note (with the exception of Statement of responsibility and ISBNs where the procedure is the same as under AACR 2).


if a mistake is an obvious misprinting:

The word [sic] of television (AACR2)

The world of television (RCR)

if it is a mistake

by Will[i]am (AACR2)

By Willam [!William] (RCR)

2. [i.e. 3.] Aufl. (AACR2)

[3. Aufl. ] with note about incorrect data on the title page (RCR)

Bibliographic Description

Title and statement of responsibility area.

The main differences here are related to data on title and statements of responsibility. According to AACR 2 the Other title information is only given if it appears in the prescribed source. Data from other sources are cited in notes. Under RCR, information can be obtained in any part of the publication in question or, when wanting, formulated from appropriate analytical findings. Statement of responsibility, mandatory under AACR 2, can be omitted when cited in the heading, or included in the Title proper or Other title information .

Differences in Statement of responsibility also involve the number of listed authors. With more than three, AACR 2 requires the first author followed by "et al.", irrespective of whether the case is of a personal author, corporate body or other persons (editor, compiler etc.). RCR require four personal authors or, when more, three followed by "et al.". For corporate bodies or other persons, the rule is for two or, when more, one followed by "et al.". When the prescribed source contains data on personal author and corporate body, information on the latter is indicated in notes under AACR 2, but included in a Statement of responsibility next to individual persons under the RCR. AACR 2 also provides for data with no designated persons or bodies to be entered in the statement of responsibility area (according to 1.5 ISBD(G).


AACR2: …/translated from the Danish

According to RCR these are included in the Other title information.

RCR: …: Transl. from the Dan.

Edition Area

Differences in this area are related to abbreviations and capitals, and correction of errors, as stated above.

Publication, Distribution, Etc. Area

The primary difference between AACR 2 and RCR in the publication area is that of method to determine the number of places recorded. If two or more places of publication are named according to AACR 2, the first named place is given however two or three named places that are given prominence by typography or found in the home country may be given. The RCR allow for two places of publication, or the first or prominently given followed by "etc." when more.



New York; London; Sydney (with "London"prominently given,

and an Australian bibliographic agency)


New York etc.

If an item has two or more publishers, the first named publisher is only given according to AACR 2. Another is only cited under certain conditions. RCR require two publishers or the first named followed by "etc." when more. It might be well to point out that in this case RCR coincide with those adopted by the Library of Congress also citing two publishers.

When dates of publication and copyright are lacking, AACR 2 requires printing date in the following manner:

1967 printing

RCR allow no substitution of printing date instead of the date of publication.

Unlike the RCR, AACR 2 allows no "S.a." when dates of publication, copyright and printing are lacking.

Physical Description Area

Differences in this area relate to the amount of unnumbered pages. AACR 2 requires the unnumbered pages to be counted and included in the paging when their absence prevents size estimate, or with relevant notes. Under RCR account of such pages is mandatory. In some cases general number of pages is specified followed by "in various paging"


XX, 285 p. (AACR2)

320 p. in various pagings (i.e. [10], XX, 285, [5]) (RCR)

While AACR 2 permits lettering (A to Zp), our paging uses Arabic numbers.

Under AACR 2, in records for multivolume items paging and dimensions for each volume are entered in the physical description area. Under RCR, this data are given for each volume.



2 v. (XIII, 2017 p. : ill., ports.); 24-26 cm


Vol. 1. - XIII, 1007 s. : il., portr.; 24 cm.

Vol. 2. - S.1008-2017.: il.,portr.; 26 cm.

Series Area

Under AACR 2, Statements of responsibility relating to the series are entered when needed for adequate identification. According to RCR, the statements are mandatory when present in the prescribed source.

Under AACR 2, in records for multivolume items, series in various volumes are cited in notes, while the RCR - in data for each volume.

Unlike RCR and in conformity with ISBD(G), AACR 2 enters two series without any punctuation, omitting ISSNs when there is one for a sub-series. RCR in this case require both.

Note Area

Note area is the least regulated, as was recognized by both parties. Notes are more detailed and better organised in RCR than in AACR 2. The latter tends to combine several note groups. A major difference in this area is the presence in AACR2 of some notes omitted under RCR, like those to the other information from the other source. Under RCR, the information is always entered in the title and statement of responsibility area. We also omit notes to theses, alternative publication formats, and summaries.

Standard Number and Terms of Availability Area

This area exhibits differences in the ISBN prescribed source: the choice is arbitrary under AACR 2, the RCR restricting it to the book as a whole. Information on edition is not regulated by AACR 2, while RCR require both edition and price data for home publications only.

Multivolume Items

AACR2 and RCR structures for monographs are equal, but it differ greatly in terms of multivolume items. Russian practice is similar to the German.

Choice of Main Entry

AACR2 make extensive use of corporate body, while RCR account for publication and title types. Title entries are provided for publications emanated from institutions or organisations and bearing thematic titles. AACR 2 generally requires entry under corporate body, irrespective of title distinctions.

According to RCR , every type of publication featuring the so-called author’s design is entered under the individual author, while AACR 2 favours corporate entry in cases of organisational sponsors. Other differences concern author entry when the author is designated by a pseudonym (common noun) or a descriptive phrase. In this case AACR 2 provides for individual author entry reproducing the original designation, while RCR prefer title entry.

Headings for Persons

Among the most important differences is the number of authors listed in the heading. AACR2 prefer only one (or first) person named, even though the prescribed source of information may contain two or three persons, and with no "et al." following. RCR allow for more than one name in a heading. Nevertheless, some steps have already been taken towards an AACR /RCR harmonization. In Russia in 1997 official proposals have been made to decrease number of authors which are to be recorded in the heading to one auther name.

Another significant difference between AACR 2 and RCR is about authors using both pseudonyms and real names or pseudonyms only. According to AACR 2, heading in this case should follow the chief source, i.e. contain different author names for different publications. Contrastingly, RCR specify one form only: either the best known pseudonym or the real name.



Dodgson, Charles L.
(real name used in work on mathematics and logics)

Carroll, Lewis
(pseudonym used in fiction)


Carroll, Lewis


Karr, Philippa
Holt, Victoria
Plaidy, Jean
(real name: Hibbert, Eleanor Burford)


Hibbert, Eleanor Burford
(best known pseudonym unidentified)


a) River
b) H.D.
c) 110908

RCR: Names of this type are not listed in the heading, the rule is for title entry with added name entries.

For compound Scandinavian surnames (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese) AACR 2 provides entries under the last part (like British), even though national bibliographies list the surnames as compounds. RCR make no specific distinction about compound Scandinavian surnames, but the NLR follows corresponding national reference sources.

AACR 2: Olsen, Ib Spang
NLR: Spang Olsen, Ib

As regards Icelandic authors, AACR 2 provides for direct order (like national bibliographies), RCR also make no specific distinction about Icelandic authors while in NLR practices favour inversion is used.

AACR 2: Svava Jakobsdottir
NLR: Jakobsdottir, Svava

Some differences are evident in the treatment of titles of nobility and terms of honour. Thus AACR 2 allows for their inclusion in the headings for persons when used by the author. According to RCR however, terms of honour or titles of nobility are omitted for foreign authors.



Bismarck, Otto, Furst von
Gregory, Augusta, Lady


Bismarck, Otto von
Gregory, Augusta

Different approaches are also evident in the choice of name forms for special author categories (Royalty, sovereigns, clergy). AACR 2 prefers anglicized name form for foreign authors, while RCR stipulate either national or Latin transcription.


Charles V
John Sobieski
Gregory I, Pope


Karl V
Jan III Sobieski
Gregorius I Magnus (papa)

For Royal consorts, AACR2 require addition of His/Her proper title in English, followed by "consort of…( name and title)". This is not regulated in RCR. The additions are not specified in the "Early Prints Rules" either.



Philip, Prince, consort of Elizabeth II, Queen of United Kingdom
Anne, Queen, consort of Louis XIII, King of France


Philip (gertzog edinburg.)
Anne (koroleva fr.)

ACCR 2 provides for similar additions for royal children and grandchildren known only as Princes or Princesses without a territorial designation.


Alexis Petrovich, Prince, son of Peter I, Emperor of Russia


Aleksej Petrovich (tzarevich)

In cases of identical headings and when the author uses no given or surname, ACCR 2 requires fuller name or deciphered given and surnames to be added in brackets:

Smith, Russell E. (Russell Edgar)
Smith, Russell E. (Russell Eugene)
Johnson, A.H. (Allison Heartz)
Johnson, A.H. (Arthur Henry)
H.D. (Hilda Doolittle)

RCR always require the fuller name:

Smith, Russell Edgar
Smith, Russell Eugene
Johnson, Allison Heartz
Johnson, Arthur Henry
Doolittle, Hilda

Headings for Corporate Bodies

The rules for entering the headings for corporate bodies differ mainly in the choice of body (organization, agency) name. According to AACR2 the best-known (official) name of the body is used in the heading but the name appearing in the chief source of information is preferred by the R?R. If some variant names of the body present in the item AACR2 choose the official or predominant form of name, and a brief form (including an initialism or an acronym) if there is no predominant form. As to RCR in such a case an official form or a form named in the title page is used, and if there is both a full and brief form the full form is preferred.

The headings beginning with the name of a country or administrative unit are considered to be compound by their structure in AACR2. According to the Russian Rules such headings are treated as simple ones.

Significant differences are found in applying the rules concerning the language of headings for corporate bodies and identifying terms. Some bodies, such as "Autocephalous patriarchates, archdioceses, etc.", "Religious orders and societies", "Religious bodies and officials" do not regulated by the RCR. Thus, it is considered that these rules may be adopted for use in our cataloguing practice.

Uniform Title

Under AACR2 uniform title is applicable for anonymous classical works and Bible - like in RCR - and for individual authors, sacred texts of various confessions, lithurgies, official Papal communications.


Following changes will be proposed for the RCR revision.

General rules:

1.  To use capital letters as instructed in 0.8 (ISBD(G)) which states that the first element of each area (not each element of the area - the Russian Cataloguing Rules /further RCR/) should be capitalized.

2.  To correct inaccuracies as instructed in 0.10 ISBD(G) which states that inaccuracies or misspelled words are transcribed as they appear in the item. To add the correct version enclosed in square brackets being preceded by exclamation mark or " i.e.".

3.  To make abridgments and abbreviations as prescribed in 0.7 ISBD(G). Our standards (GOST) of abbreviations of Russian and foreign words (especially of foreign words) should be revised.

The AACR2 Appendix "Abbreviations" contains 10 p. (for all languages).  A total of 16 p. (Russian abbreviations) and 238 p. (abbreviations of foreign words) are found in our standards (GOST).

4.  To use spaces before and after punctuation marks according to ISBD(G) and AACR2.

Bibliographic description

Title and statement of responsibility area

1.  In case of an alternative title to precede and follow the conjunction or by a comma (see ISBD(G) 1):

Tropami polonin, ili ishchu trembitu

2.  To use 1.1B5 of AACR2: If a letter or word appears only once but the design of an item makes it clear that it is intended to be read twice repeat them without the use square brackets.

Source of information:
Canadian BIBLIOGRAPHIES Canadians
Canadian bibliographies=Bibliographies canadiennes

3.  To use 1.1B6 of AACR2: Omit any internal spaces when transcribing separate letters or initials without or with full stops between them in the title and statement of responsibility area.

ALA rules for filing catalog occasional papers / A. V. Petrov

4.  To use 1.2 ISBD(G) : General material designation (for non-book materials)

5.  To use 1.1E3 of AACR2: If the other title information is lengthy abridge it when this can be done without loss of information.

6.  To give information on personal author and corporate body in statements of responsibility even if appears in the heading or occurs in the title proper and the other title information, or is indicated in the other areas (if available in the chief source of information).

7.  To use 1.5 of ISBD(G): If some information is omitted in the statement of responsibility the words "et al." Should be enclosed in square brackets: [et al.].  The NLR considers that in this case mark of omission (...) might not be used.

8.  To use 1.1F7 of AACR2: Include titles of nobility and British terms of honor (Baron, Viscount, Lord, Dame...) in statements of responsibility.

9.  To use 1.1F14 of AACR2: Include words or phrases that are neither names nor linking words in statements of responsibility:

/ written by Jobe Hill in 1812

Edition area

1.  To enlarge the chief source of information for the area: an item as a whole (the Rules... - only title page).

2.  To give a statement of responsibility as instructed in 2.3, 2.5 of ISBD(G).  Do not use the entry: 2-e izd., dop.. V.A. Andreevym.

Publication area

1. When no place of publication and no name of the publisher is found supply them following the instructions in ISBD(G) 4.1, 4.2.

[S.I.], [B.m.]

[s.n.], [b.i.]

Series area

1. To give two series statement as instructed in 6 of ISBD(G), i.e. without any punctuation between them.

(Video marvels; Nr 33) (Educational progress ser.; nr 3)

2. To use 1.6H4 of AACR2: omit the ISSN of the main series if the ISSN of a subseries appears in the item.

Note area

1. To use 1.7B16 of AACR2: Note on other formats

Issued also on computer file
Issued also on cassette and tape


1. To transcribe parallel title and other parallel title information according to ISBD(S):

Title proper: other title information=
Parallel title: other parallel title information choice of access points.

Choice of added entries

1.To use 21.4 D1 of AACR2 (only added entry): if official communications (reports, official communications by presidents of different countries) is entered under the corporate heading for the official added entry under the personal heading for the person is always made.

Main entry:

USA. President (1961-1963; Kennedy)

Added entry:

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald

2. To use 22.11 D of AACR2 : added entry under the title of the another work of a author if that author is identified by it.

Author of a Memoirs of a fox-hunting man
Added entry: Memoirs of a fox-hunting man, Author of

Headings for Persons

1. To follow 22.9B (AACR2): Enter an Icelandic name in direct order and make a reference from the inverted form.

Svava Jakobsdottir
x Jakobsdottir, Svava

Headings for Corporate Bodies

1. To consider the name of a government (here government is used to mean the totality of the powers of a jurisdiction (executive, legislative, judicial) in accordance with AACR2) to be the geographic name of the area (country, province, district, municipality) over which the government exercises jurisdiction. Therefore: treat the name of a government as a heading for a corporate body and enter a government agency subordinately to the name of the government to which it belongs.

Such headings like USSR. Supreme Soviet and Russian Federation. Ministry of Justice are considered to be compound by their structure.

According to the RCR (p.81) such headings are treated as simple ones: "...the heading in which the name of a corporate body is preceded by the name of a country (republic) is also regarded as a simple heading...". Such headings are treated as the headings in an inverted form (5.2.1, p.91) where the name of a country or administrative unit which are not considered as a heading for a corporate body are entered in the first place (heading for a government).

2. We consider that the RCR in the sections 24.3C3 Autocephalous patriarchates, archdioceses etc. and 24.3D religious orders and societies should be applied because these forms of headings are not presented in the RCR.

3. Section 24.20B (AACR2) "Heads of state, etc." is also of interest for our cataloguing agency since in the RCR this heading is only established for heads of foreign countries because of historic reasons (35, p.111). The RCR should undoubtedly be improved.

4. Consider a uniform title as a compound heading in which the heading for a government is entered first.

5. Laws. The RCR (p.138) the name of a state and the word "Laws" ("Zakony") are given in the headings applied for description of laws for the USSR further the Russian Federation. For similar publications by the foreign states the words "Laws and statutes" ("Zakony i postanovleniya") (in an appropriate language) follow the name of a state in the heading. The difference in formulation should possibly be avoided.

6.Treaties. We consider that the RCR for making entries under headings depending on number of to the treaties should be extended (similar to AACR2).

7. There are no rules for the description of the constitutional conventions. However, the only "Conventions" were included in the RCR for the treaties and agreements. Thus, the rules for the Constitutional conventions should be adopted similar to AACR2 (24.22, p.472).

The following entry is recommended:

heading for 2 government + the name of the convention + the year of adoption.

Uniform Titles

1. The section Uniform title. Parts of sacred scriptures and addition (25.18) is elaborated in RCR (46). In our option we should extend the use of uniform title for Bible and its parts as it is recommended in AACR2.

2. RCR are entirely lacking in sections similar to AACR2 25.18A14 Apocryphal books and 25.18B - 25.18M, 25.21 - 25.24 dealing with the use of uniform title for Sacred scriptures of various religions, namely Talmud, Midrashim, Koran, Vedas, Tipitaka, etc. We consider that AACR2 recommendations should be used in 2 new edition of RCR.


Proposals on making changes in the AACR2 to be discussed by the American side of the agreement.

1. To clarify the choice of access points for an entry under corporate body. To specify (indicate formal features) the identification of the intellectual responsibility (21.4B).

2. Do not enter works having thematic (characteristic) title under the corporate body heading (21.4B). To make as main entry under the thematic title and an added entry under the heading for a corporate body.

3. The name of the author given in the statements of responsibility should correspond to the main entry, i.e. the name of the author given in the main entry is entered as the first statement of responsibility (21.10).

4. To modify 22.5C6 of AACR2: In case of the headings for Scandinavian authors compound surnames should be given in accordance with the national reference sources.

Spang Olsen, Ib
not    Olsen, Ib Spang

5. To add to the list of compound surnames of the married women (22.5C5): Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Romanian.

6. To include the description of physically separate units of a multi-part item, in the multivolume set description.

7. To specify 22.6B1 which indicates that some titles may include a territorial designation:

Russell of Liverpool, Edward Frederick Langley Russell, Baron.

This example is not confirmed by the National Union Catalog, 1953-1957, British Library General Catalogue of printed books 1976 to 82, British National Bibliography, 1977. None of these reference sources has such a form of a name with territorial designation.

The forms of the name are given as follows:

1. Russell, Edward Frederick Langley Russell, Baron

2. Russell, Edward, Baron Russell of Liverpool

8. To specify an example in 22.9A1: Caesar, Gaius Julius.
     In the reference sources: Caesar, Caius Julius.